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454                 HISTORY OF PERSIA                 CHAP.
day was actually won by the cavalry and artillery. The
Persians retreated in fair order and were not effectively
pursued, owing to the smallness of the force of cavalry
and its reckless and unnecessary use in the action. Had
it been properly handled the defeat might have been
converted into a rout.
The next operation was directed against Mohamera.
In March the expeditionary force re-embarked and made
for the Shatt-ul-Arab. Mohamera, which had been made
over to the Persians by the treaty of Erzeroum,1 had
been strongly fortified with heavy batteries on both banks
of the Karun. Outranks task was consequently difficult,
and it appears to have been conducted with great skill.
A mortar battery was prepared on a raft, and this was
towed upstream by night to a point opposite the Persian
battery on the right bank of the Karun, no attempt being
made to prevent its passage. In the morning the fire
from the steamers, aided by the mortar battery, silenced
the forts, the transports were towed up into the Karun,
and the troops were landed two miles above Mohamera.
The Persians fled, leaving their guns, munitions, and camp
behind them. Outram sent a flotilla up the Karun as far
as Ahwaz, which was occupied, while the Persian army
retreated. This concluded the operations.
The Conclusion of Peace-, 1857.—The Persian Govern-
ment had sued for peace directly after the capture of
Bushire, and the treaty had actually been signed before
the Karun expedition took place, but in the absence of
telegraphic communication news of the signature did not
reach Outram in time. By the terms of the treaty, con-
cluded in Paris, the Shah agreed to evacuate Afghanistan
and to recognize its independence. He furthermore
agreed that, in case of future disputes between the two
Powers, recourse should be made to the good offices of
. Great Britain before resort to arms. A suitable apology
was tendered to the British Envoy ; and, as Mirza
Hashim had already made -his peace and all imputations
against his wife had been withdrawn, the original cause
ot the breach of relations had disappeared. The Persians
1 For this treaty vide Chapter LXXIX.